|Brazil (South - Paraná)|
|The hilly – and in places almost mountainous – region of south-central Paraná makes a good stopover between Curitiba and Iguaçu Falls for anyone interested in European, especially Ukrainian, immigration. As none of the towns in the region is especially distinctive, it’s better to use them more as bases from which to visit nearby villages and hamlets where the pioneering spirit of the inhabitants’ immigrant forebears remains.|
|The houses, made of wood
and sometimes featuring intricately carved details, are typically painted
in bright colours and are usually surrounded by flower-filled gardens.
Because of the ethnic mix, even small villages contain churches of
several denominations; most hamlets have at least a chapel with someone on
hand to open it up to the rare visitor.
Ukrainians in Paraná
|In the late nineteenth and
early twentieth centuries, European and North American companies were
contracted to construct a rail line linking the state of São Paulo to Rio
Grande do Sul. As part payment, large tracts of land were given to the
companies and, as in the United States and the Canadian West, they
subdivided their new properties for sale to land-hungry immigrants who, it
was hoped, would generate traffic for the rail line. Some of the largest
land grants were in southern central Paraná, which the companies quickly
cleared of the valuable Paraná pine trees that dominated the territory.
Settlers came from many parts of Europe, but the companies were especially
successful in recruiting Ukrainians, and between 1895 and 1898, and
1908 and 1914, over 35,000 immigrants arrived in the Ukraine’s “other
America”. Today, there are some 300,000 Brazilians of Ukrainian
extraction, of whom eighty percent live in Paraná, largely concentrated
in the southern centre of the state.
As most of the immigrants came from the western Ukraine, it’s the Ukrainian Catholic rather than the Orthodox Church that dominates – and dominate it certainly does. Throughout the areas where Ukrainians and their descendants are gathered, onion-domed churches and chapels abound. While the Roman Catholic hierarchy, in general, is gradually becoming sensitive to the need to concentrate resources on social projects rather than in the building of more churches, new Ukrainian Catholic churches are proliferating in ever more lavish proportions. In Brazil, the Ukrainian Catholic Church is extremely wealthy, and its massive landholdings contrast greatly with the tiny properties from which the vast majority of the poverty-stricken local population eke out a living. Priests are often accused of attempting to block measures which will improve conditions: they are said to fear that educational attainment, modernization and increased prosperity will lessen the populace’s dependence on the Church for material and spiritual comfort, so reducing their own influence.
The Ukrainians’ neighbours (caboclos, Poles, Germans and a few Italians and Dutch) frequently accuse them and their priests of maintaining an exclusiveness that is downright racist in character. While inter-communal tensions are easy to detect, the few non-Brazilian visitors to this part of Paraná are treated with the utmost civility, and if your Portuguese (or Ukrainian) is up to it you should have no problem finding people in the region’s towns and hamlets who will be happy to talk about their traditions and way of life.
For more regional information on the South-Central Paraná, go to: